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Updated on March 11, 2021

Raft implementation in Ethereum

Chain extension and races

Raft is responsible for reaching consensus on which blocks should be accepted into the chain. In the simplest scenario, every block that passes through Raft becomes the new head of the chain.

Occasionally a new block passes through Raft that cannot be the new head of the chain. If Raft encounters a block whose parent is not the head of the chain when applying the Raft log ordering, the log entry is skipped as a no-op.

In Raft, the leader of the Raft cluster is the only Ethereum node that mints new blocks. During leadership changes, it is possible for two nodes to be minting blocks for a short period of time. If two nodes are minting at once, there is a race and the first block that successfully extends the chain wins. The losing block is ignored.

Race example

Raft entries attempting to extend the chain are denoted as:

[ 0xbeda Parent: 0xacaa ]


  • 0xbeda is the ID of new block
  • 0xacaa is the ID of the parent of the new block.

The initial minter (node 1) is partitioned, and node 2 takes over as the minter.

 time                   block submissions
                   node 1                node 2
  |    [ 0xbeda Parent: 0xacaa ]
  |   -- 1 is partitioned; 2 takes over as leader/minter --
  |    [ 0x2c52 Parent: 0xbeda ] [ 0xf0ec Parent: 0xbeda ]
  |                              [ 0x839c Parent: 0xf0ec ]
  |   -- 1 rejoins --
  v                              [ 0x8b37 Parent: 0x839c ]

Once the partition heals, node 1 resubmits block 0x2c52 at the Raft layer. The resulting serialized log is:

[ 0xbeda Parent: 0xacaa - Extends! ]  (due to node 1)
[ 0xf0ec Parent: 0xbeda - Extends! ]  (due to node 2, the winner)
[ 0x839c Parent: 0xf0ec - Extends! ]  (due to node 2)
[ 0x2c52 Parent: 0xbeda - NO-OP.   ]  (due to node 1, the loser)
[ 0x8b37 Parent: 0x839c - Extends! ]  (due to node 2)

Because 0x2c52 (the loser) is serialized after 0xf0ec (the winner), 0x2c52 does not extend the chain. The parent of 0x2c52 is not the head of the chain when the entry is applied. 0xf0ec extended the same parent (0xbeda) and extended the chain again with 0x839c.

Each block is accepted by Raft and serialized in the log. The Extends or No-op designation occurs at a higher level in the implementation. For Raft, each log entry is valid. In the GoQuorum Raft implementation, not all entries are used to extend the chain. The chain extension logic is deterministic. That is, the same exact behavior occurs on every node in the cluster, keeping the blockchain in sync.

Unlike Proof of Work, the state of a blockchain using Raft consensus is consistent and does not fork. When a block is added at the new chain head, the block is added for the entire cluster and is permanent.

Speculative minting

Speculative minting is an optimization that provides lower latency between blocks (that is, faster transaction finality).

Waiting synchronously for a block to become the new chain head before creating the next block increases the time it takes for transactions to make it into the chain.

In speculative minting, a new block is created and proposed to Raft before the parent block has made it all the way through Raft and into the blockchain. The speculative blocks can be created repeatedly and form a speculative chain.

When a speculative chain forms, the subset of transactions in the pool that have been included in blocks in the speculative chain that have not yet made it into the blockchain are tracked. The subset of transactions are called proposed transactions (see speculative_chain.go).

When the proposed transactions make it into the chain, a core.ChainHeadEvent occurs.

Due to races, a block in a speculative chain is not always included in the chain. When a block in the speculative chain does not make it into the chain, an InvalidRaftOrdering event occurs. When a InvalidRaftOrdering event occurs, the state of the speculative chain is updated.


Speculative chains have no length limit. A minter can create an arbitrary number of blocks back-to-back in a scenario where Raft stops making progress.

State in a speculative chain

  • head: The last-created speculative block. Is nil if the last-created block is already included in the blockchain.
  • proposedTxes: The set of transactions that have been proposed to Raft in some block, but not yet included in the blockchain.
  • unappliedBlocks: A queue of blocks which have been proposed to Raft but not yet committed to the blockchain.
    • When minting a new block, we enqueue it at the end of this queue.
    • accept is called to remove the oldest speculative block when it’s accepted into the blockchain.
    • When an InvalidRaftOrdering event occurs, the queue is unwound by popping the most recent blocks from the new end of the queue until we find the invalid block. The newer speculative blocks are repeatedly removed because they are all dependent on a block that has not been included in the chain.
  • expectedInvalidBlockHashes: The set of blocks that build on an invalid block, but haven’t yet passed through Raft. When the non-extending blocks come back through Raft, they are removed them from the speculative chain. expectedInvalidBlockHashes is a guard against trying to trim the speculative chain when it shouldn’t be.
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